Naphtha is a class of volatile, highly flammable hydrocarbon liquids that are placed in a crude distillation tower between light gases (such as LPG) and kerosene. Most of the gas condensate, ie oil extracted from gas wells, is also composed of naphtha. This liquid fuel can also be extracted from coal tar.
Naphtha has a variety of uses. The chemical and petrochemical industries are the main buyers of naphtha, which is used as feedstock for the production of various petrochemical products, including solvents and diluents, raw materials for plastics, synthetic fibers and industrial alcohols. For example, most dye thinners are made of naphtha, and most ethylene plastic compounds are made with naphtha. Catalytic processes can also be used to convert naphtha to high-octane gasoline and other petroleum fuels. Naphtha is a very strong solvent with a variety of applications, so it is also used to produce detergents and other hydrocarbon refineries. It is also used to make coolants and varnishes and as a fuel for heating and cooking (similar to liquefied petroleum gas and kerosene).
Naphtha is precisely composed of hydrocarbons containing 5 to 12 carbon atoms with boiling points ranging from 30 to 200 ° C. That is, if we heat the crude oil from 30 degrees to 200 degrees Celsius and separate the boiled part, naphtha will be obtained. Usually 15 to 30% of crude oil boils at this temperature, so the same amount of crude oil can be converted directly to naphtha. Of course, it should be noted that this range interferes with gasoline (70 to 175 degrees) and kerosene (150 to 275 degrees). But naphtha on the market is usually offered in two types of light naphtha (between 30 and 60 degrees with 5 and 6 carbon hydrocarbons) and heavy naphtha (between 90 to 200 degrees with 6 to 12 carbon hydrocarbons).
Naphtha is also a component of shoe cleaning waxes and is used as a fuel in some lighters. Gas turbine engines are also capable of using naphtha and one of the types of jet fuel is naphtha.